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Historical Background of Adoption

Why Search?

Starting Search

Suggested Reading List

Issues

A Child for Keeps: The History of Adoption in England, 1918-1945, by Jenny Keating. (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009). ISBN 9-78023051-788-2

A Home for Foundlings, by Marthe Jocelyn. (Toronto, ON: Tundra Books, 2005). ISBN 0-88776-709-5.

Adoptee Searcher's Handbook: The Canadian Guide to Internet Searching, by Madelene Ferguson Allen. ( Invercauld Publications: 2002).

Adoption and Loss, Robinson, Evelyn Burns. Clova Publications, 2000.

Adoption, Identity and Kinship, by Katarina Wegar

Adoption in America, E. Wayne Carp ed. The University of Michigan Press, 2004.

Adoption in the Roman World, by Hugh Lindsay. (Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009) ISBN 9-7805217-6050-8

Adoption and Loss, Robinson, Evelyn Burns. Clova Publications, 2000.

Adoption and Recovery: Solving the Mystery of Reunion, Robinson, Evelyn Burns. Clova Publications, 2004.

The Adoption Constellation: New Ways of Thinking and Practicing Adoption, by Michael Phillip Grand. (Michael Grand, 2010) ISBN1452886903

Adoption in America, E. Wayne Carp ed. The University of Michigan Press, 2004.

Adoption Reunions, McColm, Michelle. Second Story Press, 1993.

The Adoption Reunion Survival Guide: Preparing Yourself for the Search, Reunion, and Beyond, by Julie Jarrell Bailey and Lynn N. Giddens. (Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications, 2001). ISBN 1572242280

The Adoption Searchbook: Techniques for Tracing People, by Mary Jo Rillera. (Westminster, CA: Triadoption Publications, 1991). ISBN 0-9100143-00-5.

The Adoption Triangle: Sealed or Opened Records: How They Affect Adoptees, Birth Parents, and Adoptive Parents, Sorosky, Arthur D., Annette Baran, and Reuben Pannor. Corona Publishing Co., rev. ed. 1989. (San Antonio, TX: Corona Publishing, 1989). ISBN 0931722594.

Adoption Life Cycle: The Children and Their Families Through the Years, by Elinor Rosenberg. (Free Press, 1992). ISBN 0029270553.

Adoption Nation, by Adam Pertman. (Basic Books, 2001).

Adoption Reunions, by Michelle McColm. (Second Story Press, 1994) ISBN: 0929005414.

Ambiguous Loss: Learning to Live with Unresolved Grief, by Pauline Boss. (Harvard University Press, 2000). ISBN 0-6740-0381-0.

And Sin No More: Social Policy and Unwed Mothers in Cleveland from 1855-1990, by Marian Morton. (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1993).

Banished Babies, by Mike Milott

The Baby Business: How Money, Science, and Politics Drive the Commerce of Conception, by Deborah L. Spar. (Harvard Business Press, 2006). ISBN 1591396204.

The Baby Thief: The Story of Georgia Tann The Baby Seller Who Corrupted Adoption , by Barbara Bisantz Raymond. (Union Square Press, May 6, 2008). ISBN 1402758634.

Banished Babies: Secret History of Ireland's Baby Export Business, by Mike Milotte. (New Island Books, January 1, 1997). ISBN 1874-5-9753-7

Becoming an Unwed Mother: A Sociological Account, by Prudence Rains. (Walter De Gruyter Inc, June 1971). ISBN 0-2023-0080-3.

Beggars and Choosers: How the Politics of Choice Shapes Adoption, Abortion, and Welfare, by Rickie Solinger. (Hill and Wang, September 2002). ISBN10: 0-8090-2860-3.

Between Light and Shadow: A Guatemalan Girls Journey through Adoption by Jacob Wheeler

Birth Fathers and Their Adoption Experiences, by Gary Clapton. (London, UK: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2002). ISBN 1843100126.

Birthmother Research Project by Judy Kelly

Birthbond: Reunions Between Birthparents and Adoptees & What Happens After, Gediman, Judith S. and Linda P. Brown. (Far Hills, NJ: New Horizon, 1989). ISBN 0882820729.New Horizon Press, 1991.

Birthright: The Guide to Search and Reunion, by Jean Strauss. (Penguin, 1994). ISBN: 0140512950

Butterbox Babies: Stories About the Ideal Maternity Home in East Chester, Nova Scotia, by Bette Cahill. (McClellan-Bantam Canada, 1992)

Clinical Practice in Adoption by C. Winkler. (New York: Pergamon Press, 1998). ISBN 0-0803-4222-1.

Courted and Abandoned: Seduction in Canadian Law, by Patrick Brode, Osgoode Society for Canadian Legal History (University of Toronto Press; 1 edition, Dec 7 2002). ISBN 10-0802-03750-X.

Daughters of Eve: Pregnant Brides and Unwed Mothers in 17th Century Massachusetts, by Else Hambleton. (Routledge, UK, 2004). ISBN 978-0-415-94860-9.

Death by Adoption, by Joss Shawyer. (Auckland, NZ: Cicada Press, 1979).

Discarding the Asylum: From Child Rescue to the Welfare State in English-. Canada (1800-1950), by Patricia T. Rooke and R. L. Schnell. (New York: University Press of America, 1983).

Disturbing the Peace, by Nancy Newman

Ever After: Fathers and the Impact of Adoption, by Gary Coles

Fallen Women, Problem Girls, Kunzel, Regina. Yale University Press, 1993.

Family Matters: Secrecy and Disclosure in the History of Adoption, by E. Wayne Carp. (Harvard University Press; 1 edition, 1998). ISBN 0-6747-9668-3.

Far from the Reservation: The Transracial Adoption of American Indian Children. A Study Conducted Under the Auspices of the Child Welfare League of America, by D. Fanchel. (New Jersey: Scarecrow Press, 1972).

Fast Track Adoption, by Susan Burns

Finding Families Finding Ourselves: English Canada Encounters Adoption from the Nineteenth Century to the 1990s, by Veronica Strong-Boag. (Oxford University Press Canada, 2006). ISBN 0-19542-492-1.

Finding Family, by Rick Ousten. (New Star Books, July 1994). ISBN 0921586310.

Finding Family: My Search for Roots and the Secrets in My DNA by Richard Hill

Following the Tambourine Man: A Birthmothers Memoir, by Janet Mason Ellerby. (Syracuse University Press, 2007) ISBN 0815608896.

Found: A Memoir by Jennifer Lauck

Gone to an Aunt's: Remembering Canada's Homes for Unwed Mothers, by Anne Petrie. (McClelland & Stewart, 1999). ISBN 0771069723.

Growing in the Dark: Adoption Secrecy and Its Consequences, by Janine M. Baer. (Bloomington, IN: Xlibris Corp, 2004). ISBN 1413444989.

Half a Million Women: Mothers Who Lose Their Children by Adoption, by David Howe, Phillida Sawbridge, and Diana Hinings. (London : Penguin Books, 1992). ISBN 0140154159.

How to Raise an Adopted Child: A Guide to Help Your Child Flourish from Infancy Through Adolescence, by Judith Schaffer and Christina Lindstrom. (New York: Plume Books (Penguin Imprint), 1991). ISBN 0452265606.

How to Search in Canada: Resources for Adoptees, Birth Parents and Relatives When Accessing Information to Reunite Families Separated by Adoption, by Joan Marshall. (Nepean, ON: Searchline,) ISBN 0-9694050-0-6.

I Would Have Searched Forever, by Sandra K. Musser. (Adoption Awareness Press, 1992). ISBN: 0934896003.

Incorrigible, by Velma Demerson. (Waterloo, Canada: Wilfred Laurier University Press, 2004). ISBN 0-88920-444-6

International Adoption: Global Inequalities and the Circulation of Children, by Laura Briggs and Diana Marre. (New York University Press, 2009). ISBN 0-8147-9102-6.

Invisible Thread (Novel), by Marie Giles. (London, UK: Virago Press Ltd, March 1, 2001). ISBN 1860498868.

Ithaka, A Daughter's Memoir Of Being Found ~ Sarah Saffian

Journey Of The Adopted Self: A Quest For Wholeness, by Betty Jean Lifton. (New York: Basic Books, 1995). ISBN 0465036759.

Lifelong Issues in Adoption, by D. N. Silverstein and S. Kaplan

The Language of Blood, by Jane Jeong Trenka

Lost and Found, Lifton, Betty Jean. Harper & Row Publishers, 1988.

Love Child: A Memoir of Adoption, Reunion, Loss and Love, by Sue Elliot. (Random House UK, 2005). ISBN 0091901790.

Misconceptions: Unmarried Motherhood and the Ontario Children of Unmarried Parents Act 1921-1969, by Lori Chambers. (University of Toronto Press, 2007). ISBN 0-8020-8246-7.

Missing Sarah, by Maggie deVries

The Mother Machine: Reproductive Technologies from Artificial Insemination to Artificial Wombs, by Gena Corea. (New York, USA, Harper & Row, 1985).ISBN 0-06-091325-8.

Motherhood Silenced: The Experiences of Natural Mothers On Adoption Reunion, by Ruth Kelly. (Dublin, Eire: Liffey Press, 2006). ISBN 1904148727.

Nation Builders: The Barnardo Children in Canada, by Gail H. Corbett. (Toronto, ON: Dundurn Press, 2002). ISBN: 1-5500-2394-2.

Native Children and the Child Welfare System, by Patrick Johnston

No Car, No Radio, No Liquor Permit: The Moral Regulation of Single Mothers in Ontario 1920-1997, by Margaret Jane Hillyard Little. (Toronto, Canada, Oxford University Press, 1998). ISBN0-19-541150-1

No Quiet Place: Final report to the Honourable Muriel Smith, Minister of Community Services, by Judge Edwin C. Kimelman, Chairman. (Review Committee on Indian and Métis Adoption and Placements, Manitoba Community Services. 1985).

Not Remembered, Not Forgotten Robert Allan Hafetz

Of Sluts and Bastards: A Feminist Decodes the Child Welfare Debate, by Louise Armstrong. (Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 2002). ISBN 1-56751-066-3

The Open Adoption Book: A Guide to Adoption Without Tears, by Bruce Rappaport. (Wiley, 1998). ISBN 0028621700.

Out of the Shadows: Stories of Adoption & Reunion by Linda Bacl MacKay

Out of Wedlock, by Leontine R. Young. (New York: McGraw Hill, 1954, 1963).

Outer Search, Inner Journey: An Orphan and Adoptees Quest, by Peter F. Dodds. (Aphrodite Publishing Company, 1997). ISBN 1889702242.

Parenting as Adoptees by Kevin Ost-Vollmers and Adam Chau

Parting With a Child for Adoption: The Mother's Perspective, by Patricia Bouchier. (British Association for Adoption and Fostering, 1991), ISBN: 0903534991.

The Politics of Women's Health: Exploring Agency and Autonomy, by Susan Sherwin. (Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, June 16, 1998). ISBN 1566396336.

Pregnancy and Power: A Short History of Reproductive Politics in America, by Rickie Solinger. (New York University Press, 2005). ISBN 0-81479-827-6.

Reading Adoption: Family and Difference in Fiction and Drama by Maianne Novy

The Realities of Adoption, by Jerome Smith. (Madison Books, May 8, 1997). ISBN 1568330901.

Rebecca's Law: Sojourn of a Stolen Father, by Rohan McEnor

Reunion, Allen, Madelene. Stoddard Publishing Co. Limited, 1992.

The Right to Know Who You Are, Griffith, Keith C. and Katherine W. Kimball, 1991.

Sacred Bond: The Legacy of Baby M, Chesler, Phyllis. First Vintage Books, 1988.

The Same Smile: The Triumph of a Mother's Love After Losing Two Daughters, by Susan Mello Souza and Joanne Medeiros Harrington. (Publisher: Author, 2002). ISBN 0972510001.

Saying Goodbye to a Baby, by Patricia Roles

The Search for Mother Missing, by Janine Vance (Misplaced Children, Washington, 2007). ISBN 9780979682605.

Shedding Light on the Dark Side of Adoption, Riben, Marsha. Harlow Press, 1988.

Silenced Suffering: The Disenfranchised Grief of Birthmothers Compulsorily Separated From Their Children, by Sherrie McKegney. (Masters Thesis, School of Social Work, McGill University, 2003).

Social Inequality, by Kathryn M. Neckerman. (Russell Sage Foundation Publications, July 2004). ISBN 0871546213.

Stolen From Our Embrace: The Abduction of First Nations Children, by Ernie Crey and Suzanne Fournier

The Stork Market, Riben, Mirah. Advocate Publications, 2007.

The Stranger Who Bore Me: Adoptee-Birth Mother Relationships, by Karen March. (University of Toronto Press, May 1995). ISBN 0802004474.

Swimming Up the Sun, Burton, Nicole. Apippa Publishing Company, 2008.

Synchronicity & Reunion: The Genetic Connection of Adoptees and Birthparents, by LaVonne Harper Stiffler. (Hobe Sound, Florida, FEA Publishing, 1992) ISBN0-9634410-0-0

Thank You Son, For Finding Me: A Birthmother's Story, by Beth J. Kane. (Fairfield, CT: Aslan Publishing, 1999). ISBN 094403182X.

Toronto's Girl Problem: The Perils and Pleasures of the City 1880-1930, by Carolyn Strange. (Toronto, Canada, University of Toronto Press, 1995). ISBN 0-8020-7203-8.

The Traffic in Babies: Cross Border Adoption and Baby-Selling between the United States and Canada, 1930-1972, by Karen Balcom. (Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press, 2011). ISBN 978-0-8020-9613-5.

Transparent: Seeing Through the Legacy of Adoption, Gary Cole

The Trouble with Normal: Postwar Youth and the Making of Heterosexuality (Studies in Gender and History), by Mary Louise Adams. (University of Toronto Press, 1997). ISBN 080208057X.

Unlearning Adoption: A Guide to Family Preservation and Protection, by Jessica Del Balzo. (BookSurge Publishing, 2007). ISBN 1419672061.

Unlocking the Heart of Adoption, by Sheila Ganz

Unmarried Mothers, by Clark E. Vincent. (Greenwood Press Reprint; New edition edition 1980). ISBN 0-31322-474-9

Waiting to Forget, by Margaret Moorman

Wanted: First Child : A Birth Mothers Story With the Adoption Process, by Rebecca Harsin. (McKinleyville, CA: Fithian Press, 1991). ISBN 0931832691.

Whose Child? An Adoptee's Healing Journey from Relinquishment Through ReunionÂ…and Beyond, by Kasey Hamner. (Verdugo City, CA: Triad Publishing, 2000). ISBN 0967414504.

Without Child: Challenging the Stigma of Childlessness (Routledge, Oct. 1999) by Laurie Lisle. ISBN 0415924936.

Women As Wombs: Reproductive Technologies and the Battle over Women's Freedom, by Janice G. Raymond (San Francisco, CA: Harper, Jun 1, 1993). ISBN 0788155121.

Why Be Happy When You Could Be Normal?, by Jeanette Winterson

Adoptees

Adoptee Trauma: A Counseling Guide for Adoptees, Carlini, Heather. (Saanichton, BC: Morning Side Publishing, 1993). ISBN 0969629516.

Adoption Healing, Soll, Joe. Gateway Press, Inc.

Being Adopted: The Lifelong Search for Self, by David M. Brodzinsky, Marshall D. Schechter & Robin Marantz. (New York, NY: Anchor Books, 1992). ISBN 0-385-41426-9.

Coming Home to Self, Nancy Verrier, 2003.

Journey of the Adopted Self, Lifton, Betty Jean. Basic Books, 1994.

The Primal Wound, Verrier, Nancy. Gateway Press, Inc. 1993.

Twenty Life Transforming Choices Adoptees Need to Make, Eldridge, Sherrie. Pinon Press, 2003.

Twenty Things Adopted Kids Wish their Adoptive Parents Knew, Eldridge, Sherrie. Dell Publishing, 1999.

First Mothers

Adoption Healing: A Path to Recovery for Mothers Who Lost Children to Adoption, by Joe Soll and Karen Wilson Buterbaugh. (Gateway Press, 2003). ISBN 0-9678-3901-7

Beggars and Choosers, Solinger, Rickie. Hill & Wang 2001.

Birth Mother Trauma: A Counseling Guide for Birth Mothers, by Heather Carlini. (Saanichton, BC: Morningside Publishing, 1992). ISBN: 0969629508

Fallen Women, Problem Girls, Kunzel, Regina. Yale University Press, 1993.

The Girls Who Went Away: The Hidden History of Women Who Surrendered Children for Adoption in the Decades Before Roe v. Wade, Fessler, Ann. (Penguin, 2007). ISBN 0-1430-3897-4.

Gone to an Aunt's, Petrie, Anne. McClelland & Stewart, 1998.

The House with the Broken Two: A Birthmother Remembers, by Myrl Coulter. (Vancouver, Canada, Anvil Press, 2011), ISBN 978-1-897535-72-1.

Sacred Bond: The Legacy of Baby M, Chesler, Phyllis. First Vintage Books, 1988.

Shedding Light on the Dark Side of Adoption, Riben, Marsha. Harlow Press, 1988.

Wake Up Little Susie: Single Pregnancy and Race Before Roe v. Wade, Solinger, Rickie. Routledge, 2000. ISBN 0-41592-676-9.

Personal Accounts

Birthmothers: Women Who Have Relinquished Babies For Adoption Tell Their Stories, by Merry Bloch Jones. (iUniverse, 2000). ISBN 059500637X.

The Box in the Closet: My Journey to Claim who I am by Margaret Singleton

Blackbird: A Childhood Lost and Found by Jennifer Lauck

Chasing Away the Shadows: An Adoptee's Journey to Motherhood, by Zara Phillips. (Zara Music, 2004). ISBN 0976266105.

The English American, Larkin, Alison. Simon & Schuster, 2008.

Finding Family, Ousten, Rick Newstar Books Ltd., 1994.

The Gift Wrapped in Sorrow: A MotherÂ’s Quest for Healing, by Jane Guttman. ( JMJ Publishing, 1999). ISBN 0967286107.

Ithaca, Saffian, Sarah. Basic Books, 1998.

Looking for Lost Bird, Melanson, Yvette. Avon Books, 1999.

Looking Back, Moving Forward: A Birthmother's Journey, by Sharon Lynn Darwent Bouchard. (Frederick, MD: PublishAmerica, 2003). ISBN 1413708781.

My Secret Sister, by Helen Edward

The Other Mother: A True Story, Schaefer, Carol. Soho Press, 1992. ISBN 0939149753.

Reunion, Allen, Madelene. Stoddard Publishing Co. Limited, 1992.

Reunion: A Year in Letters Between a Birthmother and a Daughter She Couldn't Keep, Hern, Katie and Ellen McGarry Carlson. Seal Press, 1999. ISBN 1580050301.

Surrendered Child: A Birthmother's Journey, by Karen Salyer McElmurray. (University of Georgia Press, 2006). ISBN-10: 0820328235.

Swimming Up the Sun, Burton, Nicole. Apippa Publishing Company, 2008.

Torn From the Heart: A Story of a Mother's Search, by Louise Jergens. (Fairfield, CT: Aslan Publishing, 1992). ISBN 0944031447.

Twice Born, Lifton, Betty Jean. St. Martin's Griffin, rev. ed. 1998.

Without a Map, Hall, Meredith. Beacon press, 2008.

Yesterday They Took my Baby, Wicks, Ben. Stoddart Publishing Co. Limited, 1993.

For Adoptive Parents

The Primal Wound, Verrier, Nancy. Gateway Press, Inc., 1993.

Twenty Things Adopted Kids Wish their Adoptive Parents Knew, Eldridge, Sherrie. Dell Publishing, 1999.

Fiction

Brother & Sister, Trollope, Joanna. McArthur & Company, 2004.

Can You Wave Bye, bye, Baby?, Gasco, Elyse. McClelland and Stewart, 1999.

Evil Exchange, by Lori Paris and Joe Soll. (WingSpan Press, 2007). ISBN 1595941355.

The English American, Larkin, Alison. Simon & Schuster, 2008.

The Handmaid's Tale, by Margaret Atwood. (New York: Random House, Everyman's Library, 2006). ISBN 0307264602.

A Ghost at Heart's Edge, Ito, Susan and Tina Cervin. North Atlantic Books, 1999.

When Fenelon Falls, Dorothy Ellen Palmer, Coach House Books, 2011. ISBN 1552452395.